T- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com 2. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The spindle-shaped and tightly packed cortex cells contain pigments that give the hair its color. The integumentary system refers to the skin and its accessory structures, and it is responsible for much more than simply lending to your outward appearance. Bethany_Thiele. Around the proximal and lateral edges of the nail is the eponychium, a layer of epithelium that overlaps and covers the edge of the nail body. Arrector pilli muscle. Integumentary System DRAFT. Please try again. Sudoriferous glands are exocrine glands found in the dermis of the skin and commonly known as sweat glands. Patient Case Scenarios Aging Surfer. The integumentary system includes the skin and the skin derivatives hair, nails, and glands. You must consult your own medical professional. Fingerprints are unique to each individual and are used for forensic analyses because the patterns do not change with the growth and aging processes. This Anatomy quiz on the skin structure of the integumentary system is developed to test your knowledge on the layers, appendages, and nerve endings in the skin. Hemoglobin is another pigment most noticeable in people with little melanin. The integument is composed of layers that may be of single cell thickness, as in many invertebrates, or multiple cell thickness, as in some invertebrates and all vertebrates. They also tend to be more sensitive to light and have vision problems due to the lack of pigmentation on the retinal wall. Interspersed among the keratinocytes of this layer is a type of dendritic cell called the Langerhans cell, which functions as a macrophage by engulfing bacteria, foreign particles, and damaged cells that occur in this layer. This increased melanin accumulation protects the DNA of epidermal cells from UV ray damage and the breakdown of folic acid, a nutrient necessary for our health and well-being. Specifically, you will learn about: The functions of the organs of the integumentary system - the skin, hair, and nails - including protecting the body, helping to regulate homeostasis, and sensing and interacting with the external world. When present, the medulla usually contains highly pigmented cells full of keratin. The stratum corneum is the most superficial layer of the epidermis and is the layer exposed to the outside environment (see Figure 5.5). But, they are also all made up of the same substance! Within the follicle is the hair root, the portion of the hair below the skin’s surface. Apocrine sweat glands are found in mainly in the axillary and pubic regions of the body. The cells of th… In fact, the skin and accessory structures are the largest organ system in the human body. You’ll likely think of the skin. The first is a Merkel cell, which functions as a receptor and is responsible for stimulating sensory nerves that the brain perceives as touch. The skin is only a few millimeters thick yet is by far the largest organ in the body. They work together to carry out all these functions. Test. In the adult human body, the skin makes up about 16 percent of body weight and covers an area of 1.5 to 2 m2. The skin protects deeper tissues from mechanical damage (bumps), chemical damage (acids and bases), ultraviolet radiation (damaging effects of sunlight), bacterial damage, thermal damage (heat or cold), and desiccation (drying out). When these electrolytes reach high levels in the blood, their presence in sweat also increases, helping to reduce their presence within the body. “Thick skin” is found only on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. As the name suggests, the stratum spinosum is spiny in appearance due to the protruding cell processes that join the cells via a structure called a desmosome. If you zoom on the cells at the outermost layer of this section of skin, what do you notice about the cells? The stem cells of the nail matrix reproduce to form keratinocytes, which in turn produce keratin protein and pack into tough sheets of hardened cells. It is interesting to note that the “spiny” nature of this layer is an artifact of the staining process. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously monitoring body temperature and initiating appropriate motor responses. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Now let us concentrate on the structure and function of each organ individually. Within the papillary layer are fibroblasts, a small number of fat cells (adipocytes), and an abundance of small blood vessels. It serves to protect the deeper layers of the skin and the internal system of the human body, apart from providing a large surface area for regulating body temperature through loss or retention of water. In structure, it consists of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; four types of cells: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Merkel cells, and Langerhans cells. The integumentary system is an organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. But, they are also all made up of the same substance! They are: Epidermis: It is the outermost layer of the skin. Ceruminous glands are special exocrine glands found only in the dermis of the ear canals. Two other cell types are found dispersed among the basal cells in the stratum basale. Learners examine the structure and function of skin including the production of melanin. Thus, the amount of melanin present in our skin is dependent on a balance between available sunlight and folic acid destruction, and protection from UV radiation and vitamin D production. Anatomically, the skin provides the physical end border of our being and is in direct contact with the environment. Flashcards. Ceruminous glands produce a waxy secretion known as cerumen to protect the ear canals and lubricate the eardrum. Melanosomes are temporary structures that are eventually destroyed by fusion with lysosomes; this fact, along with melanin-filled keratinocytes in the stratum corneum sloughing off, makes tanning impermanent. The skin or cutis covers the entire outer surface of the body. The epidermis rests upon and protects the deeper and thicker dermis layer of the skin. Save. The nerves of the dermal papillae are used to feel touch, pain, and temperature through the cells of the epidermis. In many animals, there is a pattern of storing excess calories as fat to be used in times when food is not readily available. Hair is an accessory organ of the skin made of columns of tightly packed dead keratinocytes found in most regions of the body. Hemoglobin is most noticeable in skin coloration during times of vasodilation when the capillaries of the dermis are open to carry more blood to the skin’s surface. Nails are accessory organs of the skin made of sheets of hardened keratinocytes and found on the distal ends of the fingers and toes. The dermis is mostly made of dense irregular connective tissue along with nervous tissue, blood, and blood vessels. Neither albinism nor vitiligo directly affects the lifespan of an individual. Dark-skinned individuals produce more melanin than those with pale skin. This dry, dead layer helps prevent the penetration of microbes and the dehydration of underlying tissues, and provides a mechanical protection against abrasion for the more delicate, underlying layers. Skin. A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. Under the cuticle are the cells of the cortex that form the majority of the hair’s width. Sweat produced by sudoriferous glands delivers water to the surface of the body where it begins to evaporate. However, it’s not the only part. Dermis. There was an error submitting your subscription. The spines found here are cellular projections called desmosomes that form between keratinocytes to hold them together and resist friction. We hate spam as much as you do. The skin and its associated structures, hair, sweat glands and nails make up the integumentary system. In the palmar surface of the hands and plantar surface of the feet, the skin is thicker than in the rest of the body and there is a fifth layer of epidermis. The integumentary system includes the skin and the skin derivatives hair, nails, and glands. Hair and nails extend from the skin to reinforce the skin and protect it from environmental Continue Scrolling To Read More Below... Join our Newsletter and receive our free ebook: Guide to Mastering the Study of Anatomy. the many different functions of the integumentary system; the basic structure of skin; the structure and function of different types of hair; and; the structure and function of other accessory organs such as glands and hooves. This Anatomy quiz on the skin structure of the integumentary system is developed to test your knowledge on the layers, appendages, and nerve endings in the skin. A finger-like projection, or fold, known as the dermal papilla (plural = dermal papillae) is found in the superficial portion of the dermis. What are the functions of the integumentary system? The derivatives of the integument: Hair: functions include protection & sensing light touch. The cells of the nail root and nail body are pushed toward the distal end of the finger or toe by new cells being formed in the nail matrix. Langerhans cells’ role is to detect and fight pathogens that attempt to enter the body through the skin. Melanin gives hair and skin its color, and also helps protect the living cells of the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage. Brief overview of the major structures and functions of the Integumentary System . As a system it has contributions from all embryonic layers. 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