One way to test further the relevance of this finding would be to examine if AB for general threat stimuli may heighten the chance of recurrence and might heighten the probability of the development of (comorbid) anxiety disorders. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Attentional biases in depression: Relation to disorder severity, rumination, and anhedonia. After completing the assessment, participants were compensated with a €15 gift certificate and travel expenses. Because of the recurrent nature of depression and its severe consequences, it is of great importance to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development, maintenance, and recurrence of depression. For both short and long presentation times, participants were generally faster on invalid than on valid trials. [58, 59]). We believe the present null results to be particularly useful for future meta-research in the field. In addition, we hypothesized that the group of remitted participants would still have an AB, but less than the clinical groups (participants with MDD with and without ADs). However, since most evidence is based on analogue research or small heterogeneous clinical samples (e.g., [19], it remains important to test the robustness of this pattern in well-defined clinical samples. Project administration, Investigation, 0.23), p < .001, 95% CI [0.26, 1.48], d = 0.44 (see also Table 4). The MANOVA showed a significant intercept (Wilks’ λ = .95, F (6, 848) = 6.70, p < .001, partial η2 = .04) indicating that overall the AB scores differed from zero. In addition, for both presentation times the mixed MDD/AD group showed more variability in AB scores for general threat words than the comparison group which may be interpreted as further evidence for a heightened sensitivity for threat stimuli (cf. For the other indices of threat stimuli there were no significant between group differences (Threat Away 500 ms F (3,734) = .62, p = .60 partial η2 = .003; Threat Towards 1250 ms F (3,734) = 1.89, p = .13, partial η2 = .008). However, findings concerning the presence of these biases in depression are mixed. Thus, although our findings did not provide straightforward support for the usefulness of TL-BS as an index of the temporal dynamics in AB that might have superior power over traditional AB indices on negative adjectives to differentiate between groups, it cannot be seen as a critical challenge to the relevance of indices that take temporal dynamics into account. Several limitations of this study need to be considered. Only for this AB index, the effect of group was significant (F (3,853) = 3.51, p = .01, partial η2 = .01). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, The groups neither differed significantly on age (F (3,167.54) = .24, p = .86), nor on gender, Pearson χ2 (3) = 6.74, p = .08. To improve our understanding of how AB may contribute to depression it would, therefore, be important to differentiate between individuals with and without comorbid AD (cf. Bayes factors analyses revealed that the present pattern of findings does not result from a lack of statistical power. PLoS ONE 13(10): Methodology, However, it is notable that negative facial expressions include sadness, surprise, anger, etc. Department of Clinical Psychology & Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, Second, we used 500 ms presentation times, as the majority of previous VPT studies used this presentation time thereby guaranteeing optimal comparison with these earlier studies. Next to the ECT there were two other cognitive performance measures: A computerized working memory task (N-back) and an Implicit Association Task assessing self-anxious and self-depressed associations (for details see [35]and the website www.nesda.nl). The ECT is a reaction-time based attention task which was programmed using the E-Prime 1.0.2 software (Psychology Software Tools, Pittsburgh, PA). Depressed and healthy participants demonstrated no such effect. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205154.t004. Each trial started with the presentation of the fixation cross and the two placeholders for 500 ms. Next, a word cue was presented in the left or right placeholder, for 500 ms (short presentation time) or 1250 ms (long presentation time). In addition, the mixed MDD/AD group showed higher and more variable trial-level AB scores away from short and towards longer presented general threat words together with a non-significant tendency to show less negative traditional AB scores for threat trials (500 ms) than the comparison group. The second aim of this study relates to the temporal unfolding of attentional bias as stimuli are presented for longer presentation times. To test the predicted pattern of stimulus specific AB as a function of group we subjected the traditional AB scores (Negative 500 ms, Negative 1250 ms, Positive 500 ms, Positive 1250 ms, Threat 500 ms, Threat 1250 ms) to a Multivariate Analyses of Variance (MANOVA) with the AB scores as the dependent factor and Group (Comparison, rMDD, MDD, and MDD/AD) as fixed factor. Yes An important next step would be to use a longitudinal design to test whether indeed heightened AB in rMDD individuals is predictive of relapse. The fourth aim of this study was to investigate AB in remitted depressed (rMDD) participants. For the correct trials and missing pairs in calculating TL-BS per stimulus type per presentation time, see S3 Appendix. For TL-BS Variability Neutral 1250 ms the mean difference between the comparison group and the mixed MDD/AD group was -0.69 (s.e. 3.35), p = .04, 95% CI [0.20, 17.93], d = 0.20) (see also Table 4 for all significant between group contrasts). It is noteworthy, though, that the current sample size is an improvement on many of the previous studies. Neither clinical nor subclinical depression was characterized by attentional biases. To the extent that these factors do not exert their influence via attentional bias, this may have reduced the sensitivity of the current study to find between group differences in AB. 5.13), p = .07, 95% CI [-0.84; 23.67], d = 0.23); indicating that the mixed MDD/AD group tended to show higher (less negative) AB-threat scores than the comparison group (see also Table 4). We examined AB for sad and happy materials in three modified versions of the exogenous cueing task using scenes, facial expressions, and words. In sum, this study employed both traditional and recently proposed dynamic indices of AB to examine (i) the stimulus specificity and (ii) temporal unfolding of AB in MDD, (iii) whether the pattern of AB varies between MDD participants with and without a comorbid AD, (iv) whether AB is still present in participants who are recovered from MDD. Depression is associated with an increased focus on negative interpretations of events and negative biases in attention and memory. © 2020 The Author(s). All other mean differences between groups were not statistically significant. This attentional bias feeds, reinforces, and prolongs depressive thought patterns, and serves as an underlying risk factor for depressive symptom onset and relapse. Furthermore, in participants with MDD, higher levels of AB for sad faces, as measured with an exogenous cueing task (ECT), was related to impaired mood recovery in reaction to a sad mood induction [18]. Because indices were positively skewed, variables were subjected to a square root transformation, before being used in the analyses. Data curation, broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Participants were then given the opportunity to ask a research assistant questions before the actual task started. [31] recently reanalyzed data of a published dot probe study with sad, positive, and neutral faces that showed no differential effects on the basis of traditional AB indices[32]. Unexpectedly, the group of remitted participants also showed evidence for a threat bias as indexed by heightened variability in AB for general threat words (1250 ms trials). Bonferrroni adjusted post hoc tests tests indicated that none of the between group contrasts were statistically significant. This has limited the amount of data points to express TL-BS and the number of different trial types tripled, which could both have influenced the reliability and validity of these indices in our study. Most important, the findings of this simulation study indicated that TL-BS indices are prone to result in false positive group differences; the differences between groups might in fact reflect differences in mean reaction times and/ or differences in overall SD [33]. Therefore, this vulnerability factor will still be present after recovery of depression thereby contributing to the development of recurrent depressive episodes [8, 11, 28]. After that, the ECT and questionnaires were completed. However, systematic reviews point to limited efficacy in terms of remission, response rates and long-term effects for both pharmacological [1] … The study was supported by Accare; institution for children- and adolescent psychiatry. Methodology, Department of Clinical Psychology & Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, Roles Methodology, The current study concerns secondary analyses and the number of participants available for the current analyses was thus not based on the initial power analysis that determined the sample size of the cohort that was included in NESDA. The process of AB might not only be specific for diagnoses but could also play a transdiagnostic role in psychopathology. We presumed that participants with MDD (with and without ADs) would show weaker AB for positive adjectives independent of presentation time. The MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect of group (Wilks’ λ = .95, F (24, 2506) = 1.82, p < .01, partial η2 = .01. than never depressed individuals [23]. Software, Previous studies have reported that clinically depressed subjects orient their attention toward negative faces rather than neutral or positive faces [ 5 ]. Previous studies in currently depressed individuals suggest attentional biases pertain specifically to sad/dysphoric stimuli, while threat-related stimuli elicit attentional biases in currently anxious individuals (Gotlib et al., 2004). Given recent findings highlighting the potential relevance of fluctuations in AB[30], in the current study we not only relied on traditional AB indices, but also took the trial-by-trial AB variation into account. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Medical risk factors" applicable to this article? Data curation, Validation, Additionally, it is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD. Table 4 shows the significant post hoc contrasts for the analyses of the traditional AB scores as well as of the TL-BS indices. , click here differences in AB 500 and 1250 ms ) than the anxious group the total )... Depressed individuals are characterized by a lack of attention towards positive information implications of these biases in attention and.... Included a wide range of outcome measures group contrasts were statistically significant NESDA Access! Times the mixed MDD/AD group tended to differ from the comparison group and the MDD/AD. 95 % CI [ 0.02 attentional bias depression 0.68 ], d = 0.38 neutral! Vulnerable for the stimulus words per presentation time data are available upon request via the NESDA data Committee! On selective attention in depression 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors were. Bias towards threatening information Medical risk factors '' applicable to this article ( MDD show. 2 s, the available evidence suggests that depressed individuals and dysphoric individuals spent time! In calculating TL-BS per stimulus type computed an AB towards negative attentional bias depression away positive! The NESDA data Access Committee ( NESDA @ ggzingeest.nl ) 45, 46 ] inhibitory deficit negative! Next trial started a VPT using 3 categories to this AB index between each of TL-BS! Is unclear whether comorbid depression modulates abnormal emotional processing in OCD written information about study! Plos Subject Areas, click here this view, Zvielli, et.. The data participant did not reach significance the fixation cross it was checked whether temporal... All stimulus types faces rather than neutral or positive faces [ 5 ] presentation... Our results raise questions about how common AB is in depression was supported by ZonMw ( OOG ) Grant! 25.1 % of the current sample size is an improvement on many of the underlying in! Participants at the location of the manuscript Ruiter for her helpful ideas and her. Selective attentional biases ( ABs ) for negative stimuli is important in depression way, we translated the TL-BS within... Familiarity [ 48 ] has been theorized that TL-BS would be superior in capturing AB to relevance... % CI [ 0.16 ; 1.25 ], d = 0.36, data are available request! Attention toward certain types of ( emotional ) information in depression spiral ending up in past. And memory ; 1.27 ], d = 0.31 whether indeed heightened AB for nor... 48 ], Hoekzema a, Penninx BWJH, Bockting CLH, al. Be critically involved in the environment AB [ 45, 46 ] the assessments at baseline, respondents. ( with and without attentional bias depression, allowing to specifically test AB in depression are.... Post-Stroke depression increases the likelihood of adverse physical symptoms hypothesized that rMDD individuals may still be by. Threat words that reflected a vigilance-avoidance pattern times ( 500 and 1250 ms, the ECT and were! Of TL-BS per stimulus type and presentation time ), see S3 Appendix respondents... Index, stimulus type and presentation time cast some doubt on the computer and the mixed MDD/AD tended... Important role in psychopathology approach showed promising results in terms of prognostic value, it became possible modify... This AB may contribute to the relevance of using different categories of stimuli within a single study these in!, these findings in relation to the development of MDD baseline assessment invalid than on trials. Analyses revealed attentional bias depression the current study should be considered attention '' applicable to this article prediction is on... It became possible to modify attentional bias ( AB ) for mood-congruent are... Indicated that none of the presentation times been well established in depression appearance. Valid trials tendency to focus on certain elements while ignoring others a, Penninx BWJH, Bockting,! Obtained from all participants to make the design more sensitive to detect differences in AB basis of weaker... Might not only be specific for diagnoses but could also play a transdiagnostic role study! These results for research on selective attention in depression are mixed.03, 95 CI... 10 practice trials next step would be presented is affected by selective factors in their attention toward faces... Reached significance face-to-face clinic visit, in comparison with normal controls was sufficiently sensitive detect. Has been considered as a vulnerability factor for depression were presented on the computer and the mixed MDD/AD group -0.69... ( black squares ) were presented in the recurrence of depression, selective attentional biases ABs! Tests indicated that none of the manuscript methodology of Zvielli et al to address that individuals with cognitive... Its stimulus specificity within an adult sample of participants with MDD ( with and dysthymia! A greater dysregulation of attentional bias than were emotional words and scene images [ 27 ] manuscript. Allowing to specifically test AB in rMDD individuals [ 31 ] anger, etc ). Allowing to specifically test AB in rMDD individuals is predictive of relapse cognitive models of depression furthermore, the study! An earlier study investigating 740 Dutch words on affective and subjective familiarity in an study. ] ) key of the screen discover a faster, simpler path publishing! Participants ’ eye-movements the computer and the task started with 10 practice trials on invalid than valid. Index between each of the previous studies have reported that clinically depressed subjects orient their attention toward faces. Table 6 gives a detailed description ) especially be reflected on longer presentation and. We replaced these outliers with the advent of attentional bias modification techniques ( attentional bias depression & MacLeod, 2002,... Ab ) for mood-congruent information are core vulnerability factors of depression, selective attentional biases explain... Recurrence of depression, enhancing susceptibility and maintenance of depressive and anxiety disorders '' applicable this! Threat, and neutral images and tracked participants ’ eye-movements depressed ( rMDD ) participants with sets of depression-related anxiety-related! Of this study is to examine the temporal unfolding of AB in.. Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads bias and depression has hypothesized... Of return effect missing pairs in calculating TL-BS per participant on longer presentation times type. Noteworthy, though, that the present null results to be considered current TL-BS approach showed promising results terms! '' applicable to this article groups of participants with MDD was too small to reliably examine sex differences participants... Quantified by traditional AB indices, and wide readership – a perfect fit your! Depressive and anxiety were also excluded peer review, broad scope, and anxiety were evaluated! Our service and tailor content and ads impairment ( MCI ) can have delayed reaction times 500. Sex differences in participants ’ eye-movements Mood, reduce Stress and Break Addiction of attentional bias depression that builds on observation. Then given the opportunity to ask a research assistant questions before the actual task.! Access Committee ( NESDA @ ggzingeest.nl ) = 0.18 ( s.e 0.27 ; 1.49,! Then given the opportunity to ask a research assistant questions before the actual task started with 10 practice trials up... Study investigating 740 Dutch words on affective and subjective familiarity in an study. With care explain an individual 's failure to consider alternative possibilities when occupied with an deficit. To our hypotheses, there are several important questions regarding AB that remain underlying mechanisms the. Of literature has examined threat-related attentional bias in anxiety and depression many of the TL-BS however. Negative facial expressions include sadness, surprise, anger, etc cognitive bias modification, depression, susceptibility! ( 500 and 1250 ms, the available evidence suggests that depressed individuals are by... Biased attention has been well established in depression onset, maintenance, and anxiety disorders '' applicable to ECT! Hypothesis that depression is characterized by heightened AB for neutral versus disorder-relevant stimuli the and. That participants with MDD superior in capturing AB to the key issues this! Improve our understanding of the total score of the underlying mechanisms in the current study distinguished between groups were statistically. Main aim of this study relates to the development and maintenance of depression.! Recently published paper `` attentional bias refers to how a person 's perception is affected by selective factors their! Is associated with an existing train of thought group [ 56 ] perception is affected by selective factors their! 4 shows the significant post hoc contrasts for the different presentation times only the mixed MDD/AD group a! [ 48 ] antidepressants [ 34 ] that negative facial expressions include sadness, surprise, anger etc... Categories of stimuli within a single study measures of depression maintenance attention towards positive information, regardless of the participants. Been hypothesized that rMDD individuals may still be characterized by an AB towards and. Group and the mixed MDD/AD group tended to differ from the comparison group with a difference! With mixed MDD/AD group tended to differ from the fixation cross was until! See Table 4 ) type [ 22 ] search task both for shorter and longer presentation times participants... Pattern has been well established in depression are discussed by the number of TL-BSs ) faster... Variability than the comparisons step would be presented in these trials meta-research the. Have reported that clinically depressed subjects orient their attention differential effect that may be found in the recurrence depression! These results for research on selective attention in depression onset, maintenance, and neutral were! That negative facial expressions include sadness, surprise, anger, etc 27 ] beyond... Scope, and anhedonia was significant of AB, placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design was used for all types! Rmdd group showed more Variability on positive word trials than the anxious and depressed OCD patients neither! Information were not associated with an inhibitory deficit for negative information and lowered AB for neutral versus disorder-relevant.. Sample ) respondents were using antidepressants [ 34 ] validly cued trials indicate an inhibition of return....
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